Sesame is an oil plant that contains 50-60% fat and 25% protein in its seeds. In terms of sowing sesame seeds come after sunflower, poppy and rapeseed. Sesame most China, Nigeria, Somalia, are produced in Mexico and Turkey. Total sesame production in the world is close to 3.4 million tons. The 25% India, 23% Chinese, 12% of Sudan, Nigeria 4%, 1% of Somalia, Turkey 1%, other 1% in the rest of Mexico by 33% countries. B.C. There are explanations about sesame in the cuneiform inscriptions of the Babylonians in 2350.
Uses and Uses
Sesame is a one-year herbaceous plant. It is used as a liquid as well as used as margarine. It is used in the production of tahini and tahini halvah, and in the production of bakery products such as dry pastry and bagels, rather than the use of cooking oil. In addition, cosmetics and soap making, because of its high quality pulp has been used as animal feed.
Sesame; Sesamum is a subspecies of the genus Sesamum indicum. Although official records in the 19th century based on very old history being made in Turkey with the largest cultivation in Southeast görünmektedir.türkiye and 35% respectively in the 30% that the Mediterranean, Aegean and 25%, with 10% followed Marmara It is. The most planting after Şanlıurfa; Adana, Antalya, Canakkale, Mugla, Edirne, Icel, Balikesir, Manisa and Aydin.
Sesame fruit is called capsule. Unlike flowers, capsules face upwards. The fruits which are green before ripening turn into brown brown color with ripening. During the ripening period, the fruits are very upright and cannot survive too much at the time of harvest. The surface is rough and the seed color is white, yellow, brown and black. Sesame plant has a pile root that can go to 1-1.5 m deep. This feature is not affected by drought more. Plant height is 60-120 cm and the stems are hairy or glabrous. The leaves show a mutual alignment towards the tip, opposite to the 3rd and 6th nodes in the main stem. The edges of the leaves are kneeled, straight, sometimes slit-shaped or 3-part. The leaves at the bottom are large and wide, narrow and long towards the tip. Single or 3 flower leaves from a combination of flower seats. 5 petals are united at the bottom, the ends are separate and pointed, slightly hairy on the top. Blooming; from the bottom up and 1-1.5 months after plant emergence. Flowering and fertilization happens on the same day.
Characteristics of Sesame Cultivation
Sesame loves the heat and grows in the warmer regions of the tropical – subtropical climate zone. In the 90-120 day development period, the average monthly temperature should not fall below 20 ° C and the seeds should be at least 12-15 ° C, optimum 20-25 ° C for germination. It grows well in sandy, clayey, alluvial, light soils rich in medium structure with good drainage. Since the seeds with high germination power are small, the output power is weak and there is a need for a good soil and seed bed for sowing. The main crops are cultivated in April – May and the second crop is cultivated in June or the first week of July.
For high efficiency; As a result of soil analysis 8-10 kg of nitrogen per hectare, 8-10 kg of phosphorus and 6-8 kg of potassium should be given if the soil is not in sufficient level, regular irrigation should be performed and weed intervention and field cleaning should be given importance. Harvest should be done by hand dismantling or cutting close to the soil. Since the capsules in the upper parts of the harvested plants continue to develop for a while, 15-20 of them are tied together and pressed on a clean surface for 5-7 days. The bundles removed from the press are made of concrete or a mallet of 8-10 bundles on a flat ground. For threshing, the bundles are shaken on canvas or clean covers after 8-15 days. The cleaned product is stored in sacks or placed on the market.
Sesame has a rich nutrient content and tahina provides important nutritional contributions to halva. It is especially rich in protein, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin E.
A minimum of 10 g protein per 100 g halva (25% of the recommended daily amount); 225 mg calcium (32% of daily requirement), 400 mg phosphorus (50% of daily requirement), 2.4 mg vitamin E (24% of daily requirement); 100 g of tahini 17 g protein (34% of the recommended daily amount) 426 mg calcium (3 times calcium in milk and 53% of the recommended daily amount) and 732 mg Phosphorus (91% of daily requirement) 4 mg vitamin E (40% of daily needs).
Sesame is also very rich in omega 3 oil, which provides important benefits to heart health. Due to its high energy content (500 kcal / 100 g halva and 595 kcal / 100 g tahini), it is recommended to be consumed for children of development age, athletes and hard workers. There are also plenty of lecithin (vitamin E) C and B vitamins abundant in tahini.