Olive Oil Production
The olive tree (Olea Europea) is a long-lasting and durable tree. Despite its heavy and laborious growth, it has a long life. Hence the name “Immortal Tree” in mythology and botany. Thanks to its deep roots, it is suitable for growing on calcareous, gravelly, stony and arid soils. Olive-tree; light, sun and temperature above 15 ° C. The average annual rainfall of 220 mm is sufficient for the olive tree to grow efficiently. The olive tree usually grows at low altitudes. The upper face of the leaves of the olive tree, which looks like a shrub, is dark and the lower face is silver. The leaves emerge in perfect order on both sides of the branch. Average 40-50 cm wide body is very resistant to decay. As the tree grows old, new tips from the patches refresh the body. The olive tree has an average length of 2-10 m; one year abundant, one year gives less product. The flowering season is between April and June in the Northern Hemisphere. Green olives ripen from the end of August to the beginning of November.
The harvesting methods of olive harvesting have not changed almost for thousands of years and hand picking or pole shaking has been used for centuries. Harvest is carried out between October and February. Instead of pole shaking used in our country, machine harvester has started to be applied slowly. Today, olive harvesting machines are used to shake the trunk or branch and collect the fruits on the ground with absorbent equipment. Milking or carding method is used for hand picking, roller or brush is used for picking up from the ground. In practice, the most labor-intensive method is manual picking. This method, where maximum 9-10 kg of olives are collected per hour, provides the best quality olive oil if the fruit is intact.
Another tradition in olive oil culture that has not changed for thousands of years is the method of extracting oil from olive. The reason for this is that olive oil is obtained from olive by crushing, kneading and centrifuging (formerly pressing) process and it can be eaten without any chemical process. An olive fruit contains about 20% fat, 40% black water and 40% solids. As in the past, there is no difference between the methods of obtaining olive oil today. Olives are crushed into dough. This dough is then squeezed or pressed. Finally, the oil is separated from the water of the olive fruit (blackwater). At the beginning of the 19th century, with the development of technology, hydraulic press machines were introduced. Today, hydraulic press machines, instead of olive pulp with centrifugal force to obtain olive oil machines are used. These facilities are called “Continuous System”.
Continuous systems are fully automatic machines. Since the quality of olive oil can not be obtained from the spilled olives, they are processed separately. In the leaf separation process, which is also called funnel, the olives poured into the washing machines are cleaned from the leaves, soil or branches with the blowing and separation system and crushed and broken in the crusher. Olives broken with 1000-2500 rpm in disc or hammer crushers are collected in malaxor. Malaxer is the part where the kneading process is performed. In this part, the olives are kneaded into dough for 45-55 minutes to release the olive oil. The dough is given to the decanter section and separated from oil, pomace and blackwater. Olive oil, which is cleaned by centrifugation, is taken into stainless steel tanks and left to the rest tank for separation from its final deposits. From there, it is filled into cans or bottles by polishing in closed circuit filter machine or plate filters. The remaining pomace from the fat contains about 4-6% fat. In order to obtain 1.5-2% of this oil, water or hexane extraction is applied in the second decanter. This second oil is called pomace oil. It should never be considered olive oil. The dried pomace can be separated into dried cellulose and core. Prina is an extremely clean fuel with a thermal energy of 3500 kcal / kg. However, it must be burned in special turbo ovens.
In order to obtain high quality olive oil, solid and undamaged grains must be harvested at the right time with appropriate methods and processed correctly in olive extraction plants without waiting. It is very important that the olives are processed as soon as possible after harvest. Because olives are fermented. Mold, heating, etc. defects occur. In this case, the quality of the olive oil will lose its natural leakage property. For this reason, olives should be collected in 20-25 kg perforated plastic crates. The quality of olive oil; The varieties of olive trees, geographical characteristics of the region, climatic conditions, whether or not agricultural control, fertilization or irrigation, harvest time, harvesting type, the technology applied when obtaining oil from olives, storage conditions and packaging material affect. In order to determine the quality of olive oil, advanced and modern analysis methods are applied. Gas chromatography is detected using liquid chromatography devices, even with 1% vegetable oil mixed. In addition, it is extremely important to detect and evaluate the taste and breathiness, which is defined as sensory properties of olive oil. For this purpose, expert tasters trained are used. In this way, with the quality classification made by taking into consideration the physical, chemical and sensory properties of natural olive oil;
Extra Virgin Olive Oil,
Natural First Olive Oil,
Refining Olive Oil
Refined olive oil, which is not suitable for use as food, is refined without any chemical reaction with water vapor distillation and bleaching soil. Refined olive oil is mixed with natural olive oil in certain proportions and riviera olive oil quality is created.